SUBWAY Wins Injunction Against BUDWAY Cannabis Shop

By Jaimie BORDMAN

It has been said that imitation is the sincerest form of flattery. This provides little comfort to the owners of famous brands, however, since “imitation” can cause serious problems such as confused customers and erosion of the brand owner’s valuable reputation.

One such brand owner recently put a stop to the “imitation” of its brand by a cannabis retailer in Vancouver. SUBWAY, the world-famous chain of sandwich shops, obtained an injunction and damages against the retailer, which used the trademark BUDWAY, shown below, in an obvious attempt to imitate, or at least parody, the famous sandwich retailer.

In a decision of Canada’s Federal Court, it was determined that consumers were likely to be confused and infer that BUDWAY’s goods and services were connected with SUBWAY. It was also determined that BUDWAY’s unauthorized use of this mark depreciated the value of the extensive goodwill associated with SUBWAY’s registered trademarks in Canada. The Court ordered the cannabis retailer to stop all use of the BUDWAY trademark, and pay a modest damages and court costs (CDN$40,000 in total).

Interestingly, the decision was taken by the same judge of the Federal Court (Justice Nicolas McHaffie) that decided another case of a cannabis trader “paying homage” to the famous children’s retailer Toys ‘R Us, by using the trademark Herbs ‘R Us.

In the Herbs ‘R Us matter, the Court found that the goodwill in the Toys ‘R Us trademarks had been depreciated, but the trademark rights were not directly infringed because there was no reasonable likelihood of confusion. In Herbs ‘R Us, the goods and services of the parties were so unrelated, and indeed antithetical to one another – one side being intended for children, and the other clearly not so intended – that consumers would not likely infer that Toys ‘R Us was now in the cannabis business.

The Court found that this case was different, however, in that there was some relationship between some of the parties’ goods and services. BUDWAY sold edible products including cookies and other baked goods, which SUBWAY also sells. In this context, the Court found it reasonably likely that consumers could mistakenly infer that SUBWAY was the ultimate source of the BUDWAY goods and services.

Links to the Court’s decision, and the decision in Herbs ‘R Us, can be found below:

https://decisions.fct-cf.gc.ca/fc-cf/decisions/en/item/498525/index.do

https://decisions.fct-cf.gc.ca/fc-cf/decisions/en/item/481023/index.do

Federal Court of Appeal Upholds Site-Blocking Order

by Ashley Chu

The Federal Court of Appeal (FCA) has upheld an unprecedented site-blocking order issued by the Federal Court.

In 2019, the Federal Court issued an order requiring a number of Canadian Internet service providers (ISPs) to block access to certain websites that were alleged to infringe the plaintiffs’ copyright. In addition to being the first of its kind in Canada, this order was notable because the ISPs were not defendants in the underlying copyright action. Teksavvy Solutions Inc. (Teksavvy), one of the ISPs, appealed the order.

In dismissing the appeal, the FCA held that the Federal Court did indeed have the power to grant the site-blocking order, finding that it is one of the possible remedies contemplated in the Canadian Copyright Act. The FCA disagreed with Teksavvy’s contention that the Telecommunications Act displaces the Federal Court’s equitable powers of injunction, which includes the ability to impose a site-blocking order.

The FCA also declined to consider whether freedom of expression, as set out in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, was engaged by the order. It noted that it was not necessary for the judge to engage in a detailed Charter rights analysis separate and distinct from the balance of convenience analysis that is already considered when determining whether an interlocutory injunction should be issued. With respect to the judge’s analysis of the legal test for interlocutory injunctions, the FCA found no error in his analysis.

Therefore, Teksavvy’s appeal was dismissed.

This decision is significant for copyright owners, who will now have available to them site-blocking orders as a remedy for copyright infringement.

The Federal Court of Appeal’s decision is published as Teksavvy Solutions Inc. v Bell Media Inc. et al., 2021 FCA 100 and can be accessed at this link: Teksavvy Solutions Inc. v. Bell Media Inc. et al.

For more information about copyright protection in Canada, please contact the professionals at Macera & Jarzyna, LLP.

Federal Court Provides Guidance on Fair Dealing in Copyright Law

by Jaimie Bordman

The Federal Court has recently provided guidance on the issue of fair dealing with copyright works, dismissing a claim of copyright infringement brought by Canada’s national broadcaster against one of Canada’s major political parties.

During the federal election campaign of 2019, the Conservative Party of Canada (the “Conservative Party”) produced an “attack” ad criticizing the performance of the incumbent Prime Minister, whom the Conservative Party was trying to unseat. In its ad, the Conservative Party used relatively brief clips (a few seconds in length each) from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation’s (the “CBC”) news broadcasts. The CBC claims copyright in its news broadcasts.

In dismissing the CBC’s copyright claim, the Federal Court found that the CBC did own copyright in the news broadcasts and that the clips that were used by the Conservative Party were sufficient in quality and quantity to qualify as a “substantial part” of those broadcasts. However, the Court found that the Party’s use of the clips constituted “fair dealing”, and was not an infringement of CBC’s copyright. The doctrine of fair dealing provides users of copyright protected material with a right to use the protected material in certain circumstances. Copying protected works in a manner that constitutes fair dealing does not infringe the owner’s copyright.

In order to constitute fair dealing, the copying of a protected work must be for one of several purposes identified in the Copyright Act, such as “research”, “private study”, and “criticism”. As well, the nature of the copying and use of the work must be “fair”, which is determined on a case by case basis, with reference to several criteria.

In this case, the Court found that the ad was made, and the news clips were used, for the purpose of “criticism”. The Court found that the fair dealing purposes listed in the Copyright Act should be interpreted broadly. Using the copyright protected clips to criticize a third party (the Prime Minister) was acceptable, even though the criticism did not relate to the works themselves, or the CBC.

With regard to whether the use of the clips was “fair”, the CBC argued that the Conservative Party’s use would create the appearance that the CBC was biased in favour of the Conservative Party, which would damage the CBC’s reputation as a politically neutral provider of news. The Court agreed that this concern could be valid, and could favour a finding that the use was not fair. However, the Court found that there was no evidence showing that the ad actually had this effect in this case.

The Federal Court’s decision illustrates that the doctrine of fair dealing, often referred to as a “user’s right”, is to be given a relatively large, liberal interpretation to permit the use of copyright works by all, for the enumerated purposes, and in a manner that is fair. The decision also serves as a reminder that the question of fairness is factual in nature. Factors to be considered in the analysis must be grounded in fact, and supported by evidence.

The Federal Court’s decision is published as Canadian Broadcasting Corporation v. Conservative Party of Canada, 2021 FC 425, and can be viewed at this link: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation v. Conservative Party of Canada – Federal Court (fct-cf.gc.ca)

Contact the professionals at Macera & Jarzyna, LLP for more information regarding copyright protection in Canada, and the doctrine of fair dealing.

Jaimie Bordman has prepared a summary of two recent Practice Notices published by the Canadian IP Office.  You can read the summary by clicking LEARN MORE.

CANADA’S BUDGET 2021

 

On April 19, 2021, Canada tabled its first Budget in two years.  The budget titled A Recovery Plan for Jobs, Growth, and Resilience is clearly responding to the economic impacts of the pandemic on many sectors across the country.  The Budget includes new IP related programs, the details of which are to be worked out over the next several months as the government seeks to create action plans to implement the strategy.

The following is a brief summary of the IP related programs that were announced in Budget 2021.

IMMEDIATE EXPENSING OF IP

Allow immediate expensing of up to $1.5 million of eligible investments by Canadian-controlled private corporations made on or after Budget Day and before 2024. Eligible investments will cover over 60 per cent of capital investments typically made by Canadian-controlled private corporations.

This incentive targets short- and medium-term capital investments that can accelerate our recovery. This includes investments in a broad range of assets, including, helping to further incentivize businesses to transition to a more productive, knowledge-intensive economy and will include digital assets and intellectual property.

These larger deductions will help businesses—particularly small and medium sized businesses—by making it more attractive to invest in assets that drive growth. Larger deductions will also free up capital that businesses can use to create more good middle class jobs.

SUPPORT USE OF IP BY SMALL BUSINESSES

To make sure small business and independent entrepreneurs can access the capital they need to recover, innovate, and grow in the long-term Budget 2021 proposes to improve the Canada Small Business Financing Program through amendments to the Canada Small Business Financing Act and its regulations. These proposed amendments are projected to increase annual financing by $560 million, supporting approximately 2,900 additional small businesses. They include:

  • expanding loan class eligibility to include lending against intellectual property and start-up assets and expenses
  • increasing the maximum loan amount from $350,000 to $500,000 and extending the loan coverage period from 10 to 15 years for equipment and leasehold improvements.
  • Expanding borrower eligibility to include non-profit and charitable social enterprises.
  • Introducing a new line of credit product to help with liquidity and cover short-term working capital needs.

PROMOTING CANADIAN IP SERVICES

To further support Canadian innovators, start-ups, and technology-intensive businesses, Budge 2021 proposes

  • Spending $90 million, over two years, starting in 2022-23, to create ElevateIP, a program to help accelerators and incubators provide start-ups with access to expert intellectual property services.
  • Spending $75 million over three years, starting in 2021-22, for the National Research Council’s Industrial Research Assistance Program to provide high-growth client firms with access to expert intellectual property services.

These direct investments will be complemented by a Strategic Intellectual Property Program Review that will be launched by the Government. It is intended as a broad assessment of intellectual property provisions in Canada’s innovation and science programming, from basic research to near-commercial projects. This work will make sure Canada and Canadians fully benefit from innovations and intellectual property.

Macera & Jarzyna will stay involved in the process and continue to keep you updated on the developments.  Please contact us should you have questions or want to learn more.

“No challenge” clauses called into question in Canada –

Ontario Superior Court finds such clauses are not in the public interest, and should not be enforced

An interlocutory decision from the Ontario Superior Court could have far-reaching implications for IP licensing and the settlement of IP disputes in Canada.

Earlier this year, the Ontario Superior Court declined to issue an interlocutory injunction in Loops, LLC v. Maxill Inc., 2020 ONSC 971. The Court’s reasons for doing so could have a substantial impact in the area of “no challenge” clauses, contractual clauses often included in IP license agreements and in settlements of IP disputes.

“No challenge” clauses purport to bind one party to an agreement not to challenge the validity of the other party’s intellectual property rights. The clauses appear routinely in IP license agreements, (preventing the licensee from challenging the validity of the rights they are licensing), trademark co-existence agreements (preventing each party from challenging the validity of the other’s trademark registrations), and in many other contexts within the IP world. These clauses have received judicial consideration in other jurisdictions, particularly the United States, but to date the issue of whether “no challenge” clauses are enforceable has not been considered by the courts in Canada.

The history between the parties in this case is long, and rather complex. The parties, who are both in the business of toothbrushes, had previously settled a patent infringement dispute between them. As part of that settlement, Maxill agreed to a “no challenge” clause, namely, that it would not directly or indirectly assist any person in attacking the validity of Loops’ patents for the relevant invention, in any country.

After finalizing the agreement, Maxill set out to “design around” Loops’ patent, and released a new toothbrush product that it believed did not infringe. Loops disagreed, and commenced an action to enforce its settlement agreement with Maxill before the Ontario Superior Court. Loops also sued Maxill in the United States for infringement of its equivalent patent in that country.

In response to the US infringement action, Maxill denied that it infringes Loops’ US patent, and denied the patent’s validity. Importantly, Maxill did not seek an order cancelling Loops’ patent because of the alleged invalidity. It simply denied that it was infringing Loops’ patent, and denied that the patent was valid in any event. However, since Maxill had agreed to a “no challenge” clause in its settlement agreement with Loops, Loops sought an injunction from the Ontario Superior Court to prevent Maxill from denying the patent’s validity before the American courts.

The Court declined to issue the injunction for several reasons. The most significant of these was the Court’s finding that the “no challenge” clause in the Loops / Maxill settlement agreement is not reasonable in the public interest, and is not enforceable. The Court found that, to preclude a defence to patent infringement for the personal gain, profit or protection of one party to an agreement would run counter to the proper administration of justice, regardless of the consent of the other party to that agreement. In contracts that contain “no challenge” clauses, the price paid by one party is access to a potentially valid legal position that has potential to affect the public at large, since the patent claims can be enforced against any infringer so long as they are deemed valid. The Court found that this price was simply too high if public trust and confidence in the administration of justice are to be maintained.

Accordingly, the Court’s view appears to be that “no challenge” clauses should not be enforceable as a matter of law. This is a significant development in Canadian contract law, as no Canadian court had previously found such provisions to be unenforceable, and in practice, IP-related agreements such as settlements and licenses routinely include such clauses.

It is significant that Maxill only asserted invalidity as a “shield”, in defence of an infringement action, and not as a “sword”, seeking an order that the patent be cancelled. It means that the door may still be open for “no challenge” clauses that prohibit the use of validity challenges as a “sword”.

But for the moment, the view of Ontario’s primary trial court is clear. Contractual provisions limiting a party’s ability to assert invalidity as a defence to IP infringement are not in the public interest, and should not be enforceable.

Written by Jaimie M. Bordman

Changes to Late National Phase Entry

 

When filing a National Phase of a PCT application in Canada, you need to be aware of the following changes to the Patent Regulations for late entry:

  • If the International Filing Date is before October 30, 2019, the deadline for national entry is 30 months from the earliest priority date – or 42 months from the earliest priority date with payment of a $200 late entry fee (no change from current practice).
  • If the International Filing Date is after October 30, 2019, the deadline is still 30 months from the earliest priority date. However, there are new restrictions for late entry after the 30-month deadline and up to 42 months from the earliest priority date.  The applicant must now:
    • explicitly request reinstatement of rights
    • provide a statement that the reason for failure to enter the national phase by the 30-month deadline was unintentional
    • pay the $200 late fee

Our understanding is that the Canadian Patent Office will not require anything more than a statement that the failure to meet the 30-month deadline was unintentional – that is – no detailed reasons will be required.  Nevertheless, we recommend that if you have clients that wish to enter the national phase in Canada, you inform them that the 42-month late entry deadline should NOT be relied on or used to purposely extend the 30-month deadline.

 

Restoration of Priority

With the changes that came into effect on October 30, 2019 applicants may now restore the right of priority within 2 months of the filing date in Canada.  However, if the right of priority is restored during the International Phase, it will not be deemed restored in Canada unless the international filing date is on or after October 30, 2019.

Canadian Patent Law – Adjusting to New Practice.

Janice G. Kelland explains recent developments in Canadian Patent Law.

The 30th of October 2019 was a red-letter day for Canadian patent law. Amendments made to the Canadian Patent Act in 2014 and 2015, and the completely re-drafted Canadian Patent Rules registered in July 2019, came into force on that day, bringing substantial change to Canadian patent practice …

You can download the article by clicking HERE, or on our PUBLICATIONS page.  Janice’s article has been published on pages 16-18 of The Patent Lawyer Annual 2020.  The full publication can be accessed at this LINK.

New Patent Rules came into force in Canada effective October 30, 2019. Their purpose by and large is to more closely harmonize Canadian practice with international norms. Existing government fees remain unchanged, but some new ones have been added. There will continue to be no excess claims fees. Many of the changes will have a delayed effect, but others will be more immediate. Existing deadlines are not affected. Here are some of the more notable changes for you to consider:

1) Some Deadlines are now shorter

Requests for examination will now be due 4 years after the Canadian or international filing date instead of the current 5 years.

Responses to Office Actions will now be due 4 months after the Action date rather than the current 6 months. A 2-month extension will be available upon payment of a $200.00 fee. If no extension is requested, or if requested but no response is filed by the extended deadline, the current 12-month reinstatement period remains available as of right upon payment of a $200.00 fee. It is expected that most applicants wanting more time will elect to use the reinstatement period following the initial 4-month response deadline.

The Final Fee will be due 4 months from the date of the Notice of Allowance instead of the current 6 months. If the Final Fee is not paid by the due date, the 12-month period to reinstate as of right remains available on payment of a $200.00 reinstatement fee, but reinstatement will no longer return the application to examination.

2) Some Deadlines are now stricter

 Under previous practice, maintenance and examination fees could be late paid within a 12-month reinstatement period as of right on payment of an additional reinstatement fee.

If a maintenance fee for a patent application is not paid by the due date, CIPO will now issue a notice requiring payment of the maintenance fee and a late fee before the later of 2 months from the date of the notice or 6 months from the missed due date. Importantly however, the application will not be deemed abandoned until the notice issues and the 2-month late period lapses, even if that occurs after the 6-month period has lapsed. Once an application is deemed abandoned, the applicant will have 12 months to petition for reinstatement on a showing that the circumstances leading to abandonment were unavoidable and clearly documented. It is expected that most petitions will fail.

In the case of an issued patent, if a maintenance fee is not paid by the due date, CIPO will issue a notice requiring payment of the maintenance fee and a late fee before the later of 2 months from the date of the notice or 6 months from the due date. If the fees are not paid, the patent will be deemed expired as of the missed due date. The patent owner will have 18 months from the missed due date to petition for reversal of the expiry on a showing that the circumstances leading to expiry were unavoidable and clearly documented. It is expected that most petitions will fail.

If the examination fee is not paid by the due date, CIPO will issue a notice requiring payment of the examination fee and a late fee by 2 months from the date of the notice. If the fees are not paid within the 2 months, the application will be deemed abandoned and will enter a 12-month reinstatement period. Reinstatement will be available as of right within 6 months from the missed due date upon payment of an additional $200.00 reinstatement fee. After the 6 months, the applicant must also petition for reinstatement on a showing that the circumstances leading to abandonment were unavoidable and clearly documented. It is expected that most petitions will fail.

Third parties now have rights that will allow them to infringe patents and patent applications when certain deadlines relating to requests for examination and maintenance fees are missed.

It is now more important to meet deadlines relating to maintenance fees and requests for examination.

3) Filing dates will be easier to obtain

 Filing dates can now be obtained on weekends and holidays by filing applications electronically.

Paris and non-convention applications can be filed in languages other than English or French provided a translation is filed within 2 months of a request from CIPO for a translation. This does not apply to national phase entries, which must still be filed in English or French.

Paris and nonconvention applications can be filed without a filing fee provided the fee and a late fee are paid within 3 months of a filing fee notice.

4) Applications must be withdrawn from Allowance for amendment

Applications must now be withdrawn from allowance by payment of a $400.00 fee within 4 months from the date of the Notice of Allowance for amendments other than corrections to very obvious errors.

5) Annuity services may now pay maintenance fees on pending applications.

 Previously, only the appointed agent could pay maintenance fees on pending applications. Under the new rules, any person authorized by the Applicant will be able to pay application maintenance fees, including an annuity service.

However, CIPO will continue to send late payment notices only to the appointed agent in the event the fee is not timely paid. Accordingly, we urge caution with respect to the use of alternative fee payment arrangements in light of the stricter deadlines and possible consequences for missed payments discussed above.

6) Recordal of transfers of rights easier

If a request to record a transfer of rights with respect to an application or patent is made by the applicant or patentee currently on of record at the Canadian Patent Office, documentation is no longer needed to support the request. A recordal certificate will be issued for the transfer and any documentation filed along with the request will be put on file at the Canadian Patent Office. However, as was the case under the former law, requests to record transfers of rights made by a transferee (the new owner of the rights) will require providing acceptable evidence of the transfer, such as a signed, witnessed assignment.

7) Certified copies of priority documents now required

Certified copies of priority documents must now be provided for Canadian direct filings and national entries of PCT applications. Failure to provide the copy within the required time will result in withdrawal of the priority request. Fortunately, if the priority document is available in the WIPO Digital Access Service (DAS), the Canadian Patent Office will be able to access the document electronically on provision of the access code. As well, if the priority document was filed in the Canadian Patent Office or was provided during the international phase of the corresponding PCT application, no further copy is needed.

If you have any questions about how the new Rules might affect your current or future patent applications, please do not hesitate to contact us.

We are pleased to confirm that on February 8, 2019, Bill Morneau, Minister of Finance, announced the appointment of Susan Beaubien as a Permanent Member of the Canadian International Trade Tribunal (CITT), for a 5 year term commencing March 4, 2019. The CITT is recognized in Canada and around the world as a centre of excellence in the fair and timely adjudication of trade law matters.

The appointment was made on February 5, 2019 by Order in Council.

The CITT is an independent quasi-judicial adjudicative body reporting to Parliament through the Minister of Finance.

It conducts injury inquiries into dumping and subsidy complaints; hears appeals of decisions of the Canada Border Services Agency and the Canada Revenue Agency; inquires into complaints by potential suppliers concerning procurement by the federal government covered under various trade agreements; conducts safeguard inquiries; and provides advice to the Government and/or to the Minister of Finance on economic, trade and tariff issues.

Susan will be retiring from private practice and leaving Macera & Jarzyna LLP, effective March 1, 2019. We wish her all the best in her new career.

We are pleased to announce that Howard Knopf is running in elections for Bencher of the Law Society of Ontario for 2019. Link to his web page.

Update on Blacklock’s Mega Motion of December 12, 2018.

The hearing of Blacklock’s 3000 page mega motion in its copyright infringement action against the Attorney General took place on December 12, 2018.  Howard Knopf attended . Click here for Howard’s overall impression.

Plant Breeders’ Rights for Cannabis in Canada.

 

On October 17, 2018, recreational marijuana became legal across Canada, joining the already legal medicinal marijuana.  As a result, many individuals and companies are keen to create new varieties of Cannabis for sale and are interested in protecting these new varieties.

 

However, there are still no definite rules for the examination and evaluation of these varieties, and many questions surrounding how this can be done, considering that cannabis is still prohibited in most countries. Even in Canada there are numerous restrictions. In fact, since marijuana has its circulation or transportation banned, many breeders are choosing to do asexual reproduction rather than seed propagation.  In light of that, Ashley Chu and Eduardo Fonseca have prepared an article addressing important information about the current scenario of protection and problems and possible solutions for current and future breeders.

 

The article has been published by the CIOPORA, the International Community of Breeders of Asexually Reproduced Ornamental and Fruit Plants, on its website.  CIOPORA is the most important Plant Breeders’ Rights (PBR) / Plant variety protection (PVP) association bringing together 125 plant breeders, national breeder associations, patent attorneys and Intellectual Property consultants from 25 countries. The article will also be included into the next newsletter issue for all members.

 

You can read and download the publication here: https://www.ciopora.org/single-post/2018/12/12/Canada-Road-to-Plant-Breeders%E2%80%99-Rights-for-Cannabis

 

Thank you!

Macera & Jarzyna LLP are happy to participate in the Elgin Street Courthouse Angel Program again in 2018! The gifts are for needy children in our community.

Macera & Jarzyna was honoured to co-host a dinner reception with the Consul General of Canada, Mrs. Evelyne Coulombe, at her Official Residence in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on November 30, 2018.

The reception took place a few days after the Inter American Intellectual Property Association (ASIPI) annual meeting, also held in Rio, which was attended by our partners Eduardo Fonseca and James Palmer. The dinner was a great opportunity to celebrate with the firms and companies from Rio who have entrusted their business to our firm. It was also a chance for all the participants to discuss future cooperation and partnerships. The Canadian Consulate in Rio is very active in the development of business relations between Canadian and Brazilian entrepreneurs.  We are pleased and proud to successfully assist these entrepreneurs and we hope that these partnerships endure.

In the photo, from left to right are Eduardo Fonseca and his wife Sabrina Nakano, the Consul General Evelyne Coulombe and her husband, and James Palmer.

On November 28, 2019, Howard Knopf appeared before the House of Commons Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology (INDU).  Here are his speaking notes.

On November 27, 2018, Howard Knopf appeared before the House of Commons Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage (CHPC).  Here are his speaking notes.

On November 21, 2018, Howard Knopf appeared before the Senate Standing Committee on Banking, Trade and Commerce (BANC).  Here are his speaking notes.

Follow Up on Bill C-86 – The Omnibus Bill that Amends Canadian IP Law.

Bill C-86 has already been given second reading and is at the Finance Committee of the House of Commons. Yesterday, November 7, 2018, in the Finance Committee, there were about 10 minutes in total testimony by Grant Lynds, past President of the Intellectual Property Institute of Canada …

 

Continue reading Howard Knopf‘s blog post here.

Massive Canadian IP Law Reform in a Budget Bill – Throwing Parliamentary Scrutiny Under the Omnibus Bus with Bill C-86.

Bill C-86, which was given first reading on October 29, 2018, is 884 pages long. It is an omnibus budget implementation bill that touches innumerable unrelated issues and amends dozens of acts

Continue reading Howard Knopf‘s blog post here.

Rogers v. Voltage – Howard Knopf comments on CTV – September 14, 2018.

On September 14, 2018 the Supreme Court of Canada held that An ISP can recover its costs of compliance with a Norwich order, but it is not entitled to be compensated for every cost that it incurs in complying with such an order. Recoverable costs must be reasonable and must arise from compliance with the Norwich order. Where costs should have been borne by an ISP in performing its statutory obligations under the notice and notice regime, these costs cannot be characterized as either reasonable or as arising from compliance with a Norwich order, and cannot be recovered.

See Howard Knopf‘s comment on CTV

Two New Copyright Board Appointments: Nathalie Théberge and Adriane Porcin.

Read BLOG POST from Howard Knopf on these appointments.

More from Howard Knopf On Mass Copyright Litigation in Canada – Part II

Read BLOG POST from Howard Knopf.

American NAFTA Inconsistency Re Copyright Term Extension – And Why This Issue Matters Bigly & Involves Billions.

Read BLOG POST from Howard Knopf.

More from Howard Knopf on Mass Copyright Litigation in Canada – Part I

Read Howard Knopf‘s BLOG POST on this topic.

Will the Canadian Voltage Reverse Class Action Now Fizzle?

See Blog Post by Howard Knopf.

James Palmer has prepared a discussion paper on how upcoming changes to the Trademarks Act may impact dealings with the Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO), titled A Modernized Trademark Regime for Canada. The following is brief excerpt from the introduction:

In 1954 Canada brought into force the current Trademarks Act that broke with many of Canada’s longstanding traditions concerning the registration of trademarks. One of the more controversial changes was the acceptance of applications based on proposed use!  After more than 60 years of loyal service to Canadians the venerable ‘54 Act is about to be retired and replaced with an Act that will again shake up the trademark community.

After years of extensive consultations with industry, trademark owners and trademark practitioners, a new Trademarks Act was adopted in 2014 thereby completing the first stage of modernizing the Canadian trademark system.

Stage two of this process was completed earlier this year with the release of a draft of a new Trademarks Regulations. The goal is to complete final revisions this summer and have a final version ready for adoption in the fall of 2018.

The final stage of this transition will be an upgrade of the Trademarks Office IT system which is required to handle the very significant changes that the modernized trademark system will introduce. CIPO has recently made it known that the new Act and Regulations are to be implemented in early 2019 however, the specific date will remain a mystery until CIPO completes the update of the IT System.

In addition to the implementation of a new Trademarks Act and Regulations, Canada will implement the Madrid Protocol, adopt the NICE Classification System and adhere to the Singapore Treaty.

The full paper is available here.

 

EXCESS COPYRIGHT: Some Notes from Howard Knopf About Recent Developments at the Copyright Board of Canada – click on Learn More.

Macera & Jarzyna LLP Celebrates 40 Years in Business.

It was July 1978 when Andy Jarzyna and John Macera got together and opened shop in Canada’s capital city, Ottawa. Since then, Macera & Jarzyna LLP has become known internationally and at home for its excellence and specialization in Intellectual Property.

Andy Jarzyna – 1978                                      John Macera

Macera & Jarzyna, LLP is a firm of barristers and solicitors, specializing in Intellectual Property disputes and litigation. The firm works side by side with Moffat & Co., a firm of patent and trademark agents, specializing in the preparation, filing and prosecution of Patent, Trademark, Industrial Design, Copyright and Plant Breeders Rights applications in Canada and around the world. Macera & Jarzyna, LLP has  developed a reputation as one of the country’s leading intellectual property boutiques. Congratulations Macera & Jarzyna LLP. Job well done.